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Fundamentals Of Turkısh Prıvate Law

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Yazar : Prof. Dr. Erhan Adal
Basım Tarihi : Eylül 2012
Sayfa Sayısı : 1035
Kağıt Türü : 1. Hamur
Kapak Türü : Karton
Basım Yeri : İstanbul
ISBN : 978-605-4354-44-3
Boyut : 16*23
Dili : İngilizce

"FUNDAMENTALS OF TURKISH PRIVATE LAW



Prof. Dr. Erhan ADAL



PREFACE V

ABBREVIATIONS XIII

ABOUT THE AUTHOR XVII



BOOK ONE

(THE CIVIL LAW)

§ 1. THE CONCEPT OF LAW 1

1. The positive law or applied law 2

2. The enacted law 2

3. Natural law or ideal law 3

4. Objective law, subjective law 4

5. National law, International law 4

6. Substantive law and procedural laws 4

§ 2. DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF LAW 4

I. IN GENERAL 4

II. BRANCHES of PUBLIC LAW 5

1. Constitutional Law 5

2. The Administrative Law 6

3. The Criminal Law 6

4. The Judicial Law 6

a) Constitutional Jurisdiction 6

b) Administrative Jurisdiction 6

c) Military Jurisdiction 7

d) Judicial Jurisdiction 7

5. Public International Law 8

6. Fiscal Law 9

III. BRANCHES OF PRIVATE LAW 9

1. The Civil Law 9

2. The Commercial Law 10

(A) General mode of transportation 11

(B) Water transportation (solely) 12

3. Private International Law / Conflict of Laws 14

IV. MIXED / SUI GENERIS LAW BRANCHES 14

§ 3. SOURCES OF TURKISH LAW 18

I. IN GENERAL 18

1. Static codifications 19

2. Dynamic codifications 19

aa. Codifications aiming at alteration of regime 19

bb. Codifications aiming at alteration of Social and Economic Structure 20

cc. Codifications aiming at International Integration 20

3. Methods used in codification 20

a. Casuistic method 20

b. Abstract method 20

c. Abstract casuistic method 21

II. LEGISLATION 21

1. Generally 21

2. Legislation in the Turkish Legal system 21

3. Main features of Legislation 21

4. Hierarchy of written laws or enacted law 22

(a) the Constitution 22

(b) Codes, Statutes, Acts of Parliament 22

(c) Statutory (Governmental) Decrees 23

(d) International Treaties 23

(e) Regulations 24

(f) Directives (By-laws) 24

(g) Joint-decision of United Chambers of the High Court of Appeals 24

III. CUSTOMARY LAW 24

1. Antiquity 25

2. Continuity 25

3. Popular belief in the quality of a custom (opinio necessitatis) 25

4. State sanction 25

5. Agreement with Statutory Law 26

§ 4. THE CONCEPT OF «SYSTEM OF LAW» 26

I. INTRODUCTION 26

II. THE CIVIL LAW SYSTEM 27

1. Historical Development 27

(A) Roman Law 27

(B) French Law 29

(C) German Law 32

III. THE COMMON LAW SYSTEM 37

1. Sources of law 37

(A) Common Law 38

(B) Case Law 39

C) Statute Law 45

(D) Equity 47

2. Functions of Equity 48

3. Contributions of Equity 48

§ 5. THE TURKISH LEGAL SYSTEM 52

I. INTRODUCTION 52

II. THE RECEPTION OF WESTERN LAW IN TURKEY 54

1) Reception of Law 54

2) Modern reception 55

3) Sources adopted 55

4) General Problems of Reception 56

§ 6. PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS AND SCOPE OF THE CIVIL CODE 59

I. INTRODUCTION 59

II. ARTICLE 1 OF THE CIVIL CODE 60

1) Distinctive features of the Code 61

2) Meaning and scope of Article 1 65

3) Sources of law set forth in article 1 66

III. TYPICAL JUDGEMENTS ON ARTICLE 4 73

1) On the guardianship of persons of full age 74

2) Grounds of Divorce 75

3) Effect of divorce or judicial separation on the chidren of the marriage 76

4) Forfeiture of parental power 76

5) Responsibility of the head of the family 77

6) Compensation for breach of promise of marriage (article 119 CC): 77

7) Determination of damage 78

8) Reduction of penalty taken by the damaged party». 78

IV. TYPICAL JUDGMENTS ON ARTICLE 2 AND 3 (GOOD FAITH) 78

A) In Civil Law areas 81

aa - Family law 81

bb - Law of Inheritance 81

cc - Law of property 82

§ 7. LAW OF PERSONS 85

I. IN GENERAL 85

II. PERSONS AS SUBJECTS OF RIGHTS 86

III. CAPACITY TO ACT 87

1. Definition 87

2. Degree of capacity 87

(a) Full capacity 87

(i) minority 88

(ii) mental sickness 88

(iii) mental weakness 88

(b) Full incapacity 89

(c) Limited capacity 90

IV. RELATIONSHIP/KINDRED 91

1. Concept 91

2. Kinds of relationship 91

(a) Kindred by blood 91

aa - Kindred by parentage 91

bb - Kindred by collateral 92

(b) Kindred by marriage 92

3. Relationship by law (legal relationship) adoption (foster child) 93

§ 8. FAMILY LAW 95

I. CONCEPT 95

II. ENGAGEMENT (BETROTHAL) 95

1) Capacity 96

2) Promise of marriage must come through engaged people 96

3) Non existence of any marriage impediment 96

III. MARRIAGE 98

1. Conditions for a valid marriage 98

a - Mental capacity 98

b - Age 99

c - Non existence of marriage impediments 99

d - Non existence of a period of delay 100

IV. DISSOLUTION OF MARITAL BOND 101

1) Death of one of the parties; 101

2) Annulment of the marriage 102

3) Divorce 104

A) Grounds of divorce 105

(i) Specific grounds of divorce 105

a - Adultery 105

b - Attempts on life, ill usage 106

c - to commit a crime and lead a dishonourable life 106

d - Desertion 107

e - Insanity 107

(ii) General ground of divorce, ""Rupture of conjugal relations"" 108

B) Role and function of the judge in a divorce suit: 111

C) Legal consequences of divorce 112

4) Judicial separation 113

§ 9. LAW OF INHERITANCE 114

I. GENERALLY 114

II. INTESTATE SUCCESSION 115

1. Parental System 115

2. Otherpersons who may inherit 119

(a) Illegitimate children 119

(b) Adopted children 120

(c) The surviving spouse (Art. 499 CC). 120

III. TESTATE SUCCESSION 122

1) Wills 122

a) Capacity 122

b) Form 122

aa - The public/authentic or official will 122

bb - The holograph/handwritten will 123

cc - The oral / verbal / nuncupative will 123

2) Contract of inheritance / testamentary pact 124

IV. INTERPRETATION OF DISPOSITIONS MORTIS CAUSA 124

V. RESERVED PORTION 126

1) Descendants 127

2) Parents 127

3) Sisters and brothers 128

VI. METHODS FOR THE LIQUIDATION OF THE DEBTS OF THE DECEASED PERSON 132

1) Common features and historical background 132

2) The French Civil Code System 134

3) The German Civil Code System 137

4) The Anglo American Legal System 140

5) The Swiss - Turkish Civil Code System 142

§ 10. LAW OF PROPERTY 145

I. GENERALLY 145

II. PROPERTY 148

III. OWNERSHIP 149

IV. OWNERSHIP AND POSSESSION 150

1) Scope of ownership 151

(a) Integral parts (components, fixture) 151

(b) Natural fruits 152

(c) Accessories 152

2) Nature and limits of ownership 153

3) Types of Ownership 153

(a) Joint/United ownership (art. 688 CC) 153

aa - Management (art. 689 CC) 153

bb - Disposing of the property (conveyancing transaction) 154

(b) Ownership in common (art. 701 CC) 154

4) Acquisition of Ownership 155

(a) for movables 155

b) for immovables 156

V. LAND REGISTER 159

VI. RESTRICTED REAL RIGHTS 161

1. Servitudes / Easement 161

2. Land charges 166

3. Mortgage 167



BOOK TWO

(THE LAW OF OBLIGATIONS - SOURCES)

§ 11. THE CLASSIFICATION OF OBLIGATIONS 173

I. INTRODUCTION 173

II. THE CLASSIFICATION OF OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE CIVIL LAW 175

1. Roman law 175

A) Roman Law of Obligations 175

B) Roman Law of Contracts 176

2. The French Law 178

A) French Law of Contracts 179

B) The Effects of Contracts 183

3) The German law 184

A) General Principles 184

B) Contractual Obligations 187

III. THE CLASSIFICATION OF OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE COMMON LAW 194

1. The law of contracts in general 194

2. Consideration 197

§ 12. SOURCES OF OBLIGATIONS IN THE SWISS / TURKISH CODE OF OBLIGATIONS 199

I. INTRODUCTION 199

II. CONTRACTS 202

1. Definition and Classification 202

2. A Valid Agreement 204

(a) Offer 204

(b) Acceptance 206

3. Capacity 209

4. Legal Cause 211

5. Legality of the Subject Matter 212

6. Genuine Consent 222

(a) Error / Mistake 223

b) Willful Fraud / Misrepresentation 226

(c) Duress 227

7. Form of Contract 229

(a) Written form as «means of proof» (ad probationem): 229

(b) Written form as a ""prerequisite of validity"" (ad solemnitatem) 229

8. Representation (Agency) 231

(a) Indirect representation 232

(b) Direct representation 232

§ 13. DELICTUAL ACTS (ILLEGAL ACTS) 243

I. Roman law of Delicts 243

1. Furtum 243

2. Injuria 244

3. Damnum injuria datum 244

4. Roman law of quasi delicts 244

II. French law of Delicts and quasi delicts. 245

1. Introduction 245

2. Fault and Negligence 246

3. Imputed Responsibility, (a) Article 1384 247

III. German law of Delictual Obligations 264

IV. The English Law of Torts 279

A) Trespass 280

B) Nuisance 282

C) Negligence 283

V. ILLEGAL ACTS IN SWISS / TURKISH LAW 285

1. Elements of tortious liability 287

(A) Damages. 288

(B) Adequate causality 293

(C) Illegality 294

(D) Fault 295

2. Absolute (strict) Liability 298

A) Equitable liability 299

B) Liability for dangerous activities 299

(a) Vicarious liability (liability of the employer) 301

(b) Contractual liability (of the party) versus the adverse party (for his assistants’ acts). 302

(c) Liability of animal keepers 305

(d) Liability of building owners or other structures 305

3) Traffic liability 307

§ 14. UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT 338

I. Roman Law of quasi contracts 339

II. French Law of Quasi Contracts 339

1. In General. 339

2. Gestion d'Affaires. 340

3. Répétition de I'lndu. 341

III. German Law of quasi ex contractu 341

IV. Anglo-American law 342

V. UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT IN SWISS - TURKISH LAW 343

1. In General 343

2. Conditions of claim based on unjustified enrichment 343

3. Exceptions to claim based on unjustified enrichment 344

4. Nature of the claim based on unjustified enrichment 345

5. Extent of restitution 345



APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1

THE TURKISH CIVIL CODE and CODE of OBLIGATIONS 351



APPENDIX 2

FOREIGN CODES 403

I) CONTINENTAL/CIVIL LAW COUNTRIES 403

A) THE FRENCH CIVIL CODE 403

B) REICHSHAFTPFLICHTGESETZ 427

C) THE GERMAN CIVIL CODE 429

D) THE 1942 ITALIAN CIVIL CODE 468

II) COMMON LAW COUNTRIES / ANGLO - AMERICAN LAW 471

A) SALE OF GOODS ACT 1979 471

B) SALE AND SUPPLY OF GOODS ACT 1994 495

C) THE RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF CONTRACTS 516

D) RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF AGENCY 564

E) THE SECOND RESTATEMENT OF TORTS 566

F) RESTATEMENT OF THE LAW THIRD; TORTS: LIABILITY FOR PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL HARM 567



APPENDIX 3

THE 1973 STRASBOURG CONVENTION ON CIVIL LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY MOTOR VEHICLES 577



APPENDIX 4

A) THE 1980 VIENNA CONVENTION ON THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS 585

B) UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS 2004 614

C) UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE 652



APPENDIX 5

(A) PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN LAW OF CONTRACTS PECL 711

(B) PRINCIPLES OF EUROPEAN LAW OF TORTS - PELT 753



APPENDIX 6

GLOSSARY ON BUSINESS, COMMERCIAL AND LEGAL TERMS 777



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