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Seeking a Legal Perspectıve On Internatıonal Mıgratıon And Turkey

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Yazar : İbrahim Kaya
Basım Tarihi : Mayıs 2012
Sayfa Sayısı : 186
Kağıt Türü : 1. Hamur
Kapak Türü : Karton
Basım Yeri : İstanbul
ISBN : 978-605-4354-28-3
Boyut : 16*23
Dili : İngilizce

SEEKING A LEGAL PERSPECTIVE ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND TURKEY



İbrahim KAYA



TABLE OF CONTENTS



TABLE OF CONTENTS 7



CHAPTER ONE

REFORM IN TURKISH ASYLUM LAW: ADOPTING THE EU ACQUIS?

Introduction 13

Background information on migration and asylum in Turkey 15

Legal framework in Turkey 17

General Picture: 17

Geographical Limitation 20

Asylum procedure 22

UNHCR in Turkey 25

Adopting the EU acquis and asylum reform 27

National Action Plan 27

Accelerated procedures 30

Need for a holistic approach to Asylum and Migration 32

Institutional reforms 32

Lifting the geographical limitation and burden sharing 36

Rights and implementation 40

Health care 41

Legal access to work 41

Education 42

The integration issue 42

The EU acquis and projects on asylum 46

Conclusion 48

BIBLIOGRAPHY 60



CHAPTER TWO

THE IRAQI REFUGEE CRISIS AND TURKEY: A LEGAL OUTLOOK

Introduction 65

Iraqi Refugees: A Turkish Experience 65

Legal Status of Iraqis in Turkey 67

International Law, Turkey and Refugees 68

The UNHCR and Refugees in Turkey 74

Rights of Iraqi “Refugees” in Turkey 76

Turkish Citizenship Law and Favourable Treatment for Iraqis 77

Conclusion 78

Bibliography 79



CHAPTER THREE

CIRCULAR MIGRATION AND TURKEY: A LEGAL PERSPECTIVE

A. Introduction 83

B. Circular Migration in the Turkish Legal Framework 84

1. Turkish Nationals Working Abroad 84

Entry & Exit Laws 84

Border Control 85

Illegal Turkish Workers Abroad 85

Coordination of Social Benefits in Turkey and Host Countries 86

Political Participation of Turkish Citizens Working Abroad 88

Bilateral Mobility Agreements 90

Turkey-UK The Experience of Circular Migration 91

2. Foreign Workers in Turkey 92

Short-Term Stay 92

Residence and Work Permits 92

Work Permit 93

Employment Visa 93

Residence Permit for Employment Purposes 94

Types of Work Permits 94

Illegal Employment 96

Turkish Labour Law and Non-Nationals 97

Exceptional Favourable Treatment of Turkish Nationals 99

C. Concluding Remarks And Suggestions 100



CHAPTER FOUR

LEGAL ASPECTS OF IRREGULAR MIGRATION IN TURKEY

A. Introductory Remarks 105

B. Typology of Irregular Migrants in Turkish Legal Context 108

1. Asylum 108

2. People Smuggling and Trafficking 111

3. Irregular Labour 113

4. Transit Migration 115

C. Coping with Irregular Migration in Turkey: Legal Framework 116

D. Concluding Remarks and Suggestions 118

Bibliography 119



CHAPTER FIVE

TURKEY AND UNDOCUMENTED MIGRATION

PART I: SETTING THE FRAME 123

1. Regular Migration: Empirical Framework 124

2. Regular Migration: Legal Framework 127

3. Irregular Migration 138

3.1 Pathways into Irregularity 138

3.2 Discourses 139

PART II: ESTIMATES, DATA AND ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF IRREGULAR MIGRANT POPULATION 143

1. Most relevant studies 143

1.1 Academic Papers and Reports 143

1.2. Official Data 147

2. Estimates, data and expert assessments on stocks 151

2.1 Total Stocks 151

2.2 Gender and Age Composition 153

2.3 Nationality Composition 154

2.4 Economic Sector Composition 158

2.5 Former Asylum Seekers 161

3. Estimates, data and expert assessments on Flows 164

3.1 Demographic Flows 164

3.2 Border-Related Flows 164

3.3 Status-Related flows 168

PART III: DISCUSSION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS 169

ANNEX: 177

REFERENCES 183